Using a Mueller optical coherence tomography (OCT) to extract linear birefringence (LB) and linear dichroism (LD) parameters of the material with scatters is proposed in this study. The analytical model is derived by the differential Mueller matrix formalism that considering the reflected mode for measuring an optically anisotropic sample containing LB, LD and depolarization effect in full range measurements. In contrast to the conventional Mueller OCT system, the proposed model provides the exact solutions for the optically anisotropic parameters decoupled from the depolarization effect for actual materials. Also in comparisons with an analytical model based up a decomposition method, it is found that one based upon a differential method is much easier and more realistic for simulating the materials simultaneously containing multiple optical properties. The validity of the system is proved by the simulation results. As authors’ knowledge, this is the first concept to merge a differential method in the reflection mode in a Mueller OCT system.