The ability to control cell function is one of the challenges for cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine. In this study, we describe a novel method to fabricate cellhydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystal composites to modulate cellular microenvironment. By preparation of layer-by-layer nanometer-sized extracellular matrix films onto cell surfaces, HAp nanocrystals were fabricated onto cell surfaces without cytotoxicity. This technology can modulate cellular functions such as adhesion, growth, and differentiation.
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