Fabrication of ultra-thin carbon nanofibers by centrifuged-electrospinning for application in high-rate supercapacitors

Wei Min Chang, Cheng Chien Wang, Chuh-Yung Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The novel technique of centrifuged-electrospinning is employed to fabricate immiscible polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) polymer fibers, followed by carbonization to form ultra-thin carbon nanofibers (UT-CNF) with 28 ± 11 nm diameters. An additional centrifugal force provides a strong stretching force to stretch the dispersed droplets (PAN) into ultra-thin nanofibers, as confirmed by electron microscopy. This structure presents good electrochemical properties compared to electrospun carbon nanofibers with 126 ± 16 nm diameters. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis shows enhanced efficient surface areas, which accumulate ions more quickly, resulting in a decrease in the charge distribution and ion diffusion resistance because the reduction in diameter provides a short pore length and large outer surface. Applied to a supercapacitor, galvanostatic charge/discharge analysis gives a maximum specific capacitance of 243 F/g at 1 A/g and capacitance retention of 77.1% at a charge/discharge rate of 100 A/g for UT-CNF. This result is significantly higher than that of traditional electrospun carbon nanofibers.

LanguageEnglish
Pages268-275
Number of pages8
JournalElectrochimica Acta
Volume296
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Feb 10

Fingerprint

Carbon nanofibers
Carbonization
Electrospinning
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
Capacitance
Fabrication
Polyacrylonitriles
Ions
Charge distribution
Polymethyl Methacrylate
Nanofibers
Polymethyl methacrylates
Electrochemical properties
Electron microscopy
Stretching
Polymers
Supercapacitor
Fibers
polyacrylonitrile

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Electrochemistry

Cite this

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title = "Fabrication of ultra-thin carbon nanofibers by centrifuged-electrospinning for application in high-rate supercapacitors",
abstract = "The novel technique of centrifuged-electrospinning is employed to fabricate immiscible polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) polymer fibers, followed by carbonization to form ultra-thin carbon nanofibers (UT-CNF) with 28 ± 11 nm diameters. An additional centrifugal force provides a strong stretching force to stretch the dispersed droplets (PAN) into ultra-thin nanofibers, as confirmed by electron microscopy. This structure presents good electrochemical properties compared to electrospun carbon nanofibers with 126 ± 16 nm diameters. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis shows enhanced efficient surface areas, which accumulate ions more quickly, resulting in a decrease in the charge distribution and ion diffusion resistance because the reduction in diameter provides a short pore length and large outer surface. Applied to a supercapacitor, galvanostatic charge/discharge analysis gives a maximum specific capacitance of 243 F/g at 1 A/g and capacitance retention of 77.1{\%} at a charge/discharge rate of 100 A/g for UT-CNF. This result is significantly higher than that of traditional electrospun carbon nanofibers.",
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Fabrication of ultra-thin carbon nanofibers by centrifuged-electrospinning for application in high-rate supercapacitors. / Chang, Wei Min; Wang, Cheng Chien; Chen, Chuh-Yung.

In: Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 296, 10.02.2019, p. 268-275.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AB - The novel technique of centrifuged-electrospinning is employed to fabricate immiscible polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) polymer fibers, followed by carbonization to form ultra-thin carbon nanofibers (UT-CNF) with 28 ± 11 nm diameters. An additional centrifugal force provides a strong stretching force to stretch the dispersed droplets (PAN) into ultra-thin nanofibers, as confirmed by electron microscopy. This structure presents good electrochemical properties compared to electrospun carbon nanofibers with 126 ± 16 nm diameters. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis shows enhanced efficient surface areas, which accumulate ions more quickly, resulting in a decrease in the charge distribution and ion diffusion resistance because the reduction in diameter provides a short pore length and large outer surface. Applied to a supercapacitor, galvanostatic charge/discharge analysis gives a maximum specific capacitance of 243 F/g at 1 A/g and capacitance retention of 77.1% at a charge/discharge rate of 100 A/g for UT-CNF. This result is significantly higher than that of traditional electrospun carbon nanofibers.

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