Super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) is a critical condition in which seizures persist despite anesthetic use for 24 h or longer. High mortality has been reported in patients with SRSE, but the cause of death remains unclear. We investigated the factors associated with mortality, including clinical characteristics, SE etiologies and severities, treatments, and responses in patients with SRSE in a 13-year tertiary hospital-based retrospective cohort study comparing these parameters between deceased and surviving patients. SRSE accounted for 14.2% of patients with status epilepticus, and 28.6% of SRSE patients died. Deceased patients were mostly young or middle-aged without known systemic diseases or epilepsy. All deceased patients experienced generalized convulsive status epilepticus and failure of anesthetic tapering-off, significantly higher than survivors. An increased number of second-line anesthetics besides midazolam was observed in the deceased (median, 3, interquartile range 2–3) compared to surviving (1, 1–1; p = 0.0006) patients with prolonged use durations (p = 0.047). For mortality, the cut-off number of second-line anesthetics was 1.5 (AUC = 0.906, p = 0.004). Deceased patients had significantly higher renal and cardiac complications and metabolic acidosis than survivors. In SRSE management, multi-anesthetic use should be carefully controlled to avoid systemic complications and mortality.
|Publication status||Published - 2022 Dec|
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