This paper proposes two new fault-tolerant controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC) protocols based only on Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR) entangled states. The proposed protocols are designed to be robust against the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. Compared to the existing fault-tolerant controlled quantum communication protocols, the proposed protocols not only can do without a quantum channel between the receiver and the controller as the state-of-the-art protocols do, but also have the advantage that the number of quantum particles required in the CDSQC protocols is reduced owing to the use of the simplest entangled states.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Theoretical Computer Science
- Signal Processing
- Modelling and Simulation
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering