Aims: Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes deficits in neurite outgrowth, which suggests that enhancement of neurite outgrowth is a potential direction by which to improve HD. Our previous publications showed that fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) provides anti-apoptosis and anti-oxidative functions in striatal cell models of HD through the extracellular signal–regulated kinases (ERK) pathway, and FGF9 also stimulates cytoskeletons to enhance neurite outgrowth via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) signaling. In this study, we further demonstrate the importance of the ERK pathway for the neurite outgrowth induced by FGF9 in HD striatal models. Materials and methods: FGF9 was treated with ERK (U0126) or NF-kB (BAY11-7082) inhibitors in STHdhQ7/Q7 and STHdhQ111/Q111 striatal knock-in cell lines to examine neurite outgrowth, cytoskeletal markers, and synaptic proteins via immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting. NF-kB activity was analyzed by NF-kB promoter reporter assay. Key findings: Here, we show that suppression of ERK signaling significantly inhibits FGF9-induced neurite outgrowth, cytoskeletal markers, and synaptic proteins in HD striatal cells. In addition, we also show suppression of ERK signaling significantly decreases FGF9-induced NF-kB activation, whereas suppression of NF-kB does not decrease FGF9-induced ERK signaling. These results suggest that FGF9 activates ERK signaling first, stimulates NF-kB upregulation, and then enhances neurite outgrowth in HD striatal cells. Significance: We elucidate the more detailed mechanisms of neurite outgrowth enhanced by FGF9 in these HD striatal cells. This study may provide insights into targeting neurite outgrowth for HD therapy.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)