Fluctuating asymmetry of the normal facial skeleton

J. Gateño, T. L. Jones, S. G.F. Shen, K. C. Chen, A. Jajoo, T. Kuang, J. D. English, M. Nicol, J. F. Teichgraeber, J. J. Xia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study was to produce reliable estimations of fluctuating facial asymmetry in a normal population. Fifty-four computed tomography (CT) facial models of average-looking and symmetrical Chinese subjects with a class I occlusion were used in this study. Eleven midline landmarks and 12 pairs of bilateral landmarks were digitized. The repeatability of the landmark digitization was first evaluated. A Procrustes analysis was then used to measure the fluctuating asymmetry of each CT model, after all of the models had been scaled to the average face size of the study sample. A principal component analysis was finally used to establish the direction of the fluctuating asymmetries. The results showed that there was excellent absolute agreement among the three repeated measurements. The mean fluctuating asymmetry of the average-size face varied at each anthropometric landmark site, ranging from 1.0 mm to 2.8 mm. At the 95% upper limit, the asymmetries ranged from 2.2 mm to 5.7 mm. Most of the asymmetry of the midline structures was mediolateral, while the asymmetry of the bilateral landmarks was more equally distributed. These values are for the average face. People with larger faces will have higher values, while subjects with smaller faces will have lower values.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)534-540
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Apr

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


Dive into the research topics of 'Fluctuating asymmetry of the normal facial skeleton'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this