Direct conversion of an amorphous carbon (C) film to capsules by gallium (Ga), and nickel and cobalt (NiCo) alloy particles upon heating is investigated in situ by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Capsules are catalyzed in an NH 3 atmosphere when the temperature is raised to 1050 °C. High resolution TEM reveals that graphene flakes initially nucleate at the surface of the catalysts, then segregate and transform into faceted multi-shell capsules upon continued heating. The solubility of carbon in the NiCo alloy particles can be differentiated from the solubility of carbon in Ga particles by the thickness of the walls. The C/Ga binary phase in nanoparticles is discussed regarding the formation of thin-walled carbon capsules.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering