Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB) is a behavioral intervention that uses resonance frequency breathing to synchronize the heart rate and breathing patterns. This study aimed to explore how many sessions of wearable HRVB devices are needed to increase the HRV index and decrease breathing rates and to compare the HRVB protocol with other psychological intervention programs in HRV indices and breathing rates. Sixty-four participants were randomly assigned to either the HRVB or relaxation training (RT) group. Both groups received interbeat intervals (IBIs) and breathing rates measurement at the pre-training baseline, during training, and post-training baseline from weeks 1 to 4. IBIs were transformed into HRV indices as the index of the autonomic nervous system. The Group × Week interaction effects significantly in HRV indices and breathing rates. The between-group comparison found a significant increase in HRV indices and decreased breathing rates in the HRVB group than in the RT group at week 4. The within-session comparison in the HRVB group revealed significantly increased HRV indices and decreased breathing rates at weeks 3 and 4 than at weeks 1 and 2. There was a significant increase in HRV indices and a decrease in breathing rates at mid- and post-training than pre-training in the HRVB group. Therefore, 4 weeks of HRVB combined with a wearable device are needed in increasing HRV indices and decrease breathing rates compared to the relaxation training. Three weeks of HRVB training are the minimum requirement for increasing HRV indices and reducing breathing rates compared to the first week of HRVB.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Applied Psychophysiology Biofeedback|
|Publication status||Published - 2023 Mar|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
- Applied Psychology