From gps receiver to gnss reflectometry payload development for the triton satellite mission

Yung Fu Tsai, Wen Hao Yeh, Jyh Ching Juang, Dian Syuan Yang, Chen Tsung Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The global positioning system (GPS) receiver has been one of the most important navigation systems for more than two decades. Although the GPS system was originally designed for near-Earth navigation, currently it is widely used in highly dynamic environments (such as low Earth orbit (LEO)). A space-capable GPS receiver (GPSR) is capable of providing timing and navigation information for spacecraft to determine the orbit and synchronize the onboard timing; therefore, it is one of the essential components of modern spacecraft. However, a space-grade GPSR is technol-ogy-sensitive and under export control. In order to overcome export control, the National Space Organization (NSPO) in Taiwan completed the development of a self-reliant space-grade GPSR in 2014. The NSPO GPSR, built in-house, has passed its qualification tests and is ready to fly onboard the Triton satellite. In addition to providing navigation, the GPS/global navigation satellite system (GNSS) is facilitated to many remote sensing missions, such as GNSS radio occultation (GNSS-RO) and GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R). Based on the design of the NSPO GPSR, the NSPO is actively engaged in the development of the Triton program (a GNSS reflectometry mission). In a GNSS-R mission, the reflected signals are processed to form delay Doppler maps (DDMs) so that various properties (including ocean surface roughness, vegetation, soil moisture, and so on) can be re-trieved. This paper describes not only the development of the NSPO GPSR but also the design, development, and special features of the Triton’s GNSS-R mission. Moreover, in order to verify the NSPO GNSS-R receiver, ground/flight tests are deemed essential. Then, data analyses of the airborne GNSS-R tests are presented in this paper.

Original languageEnglish
Article number999
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Mar 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)


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