Several new androgen receptor (AR) coregulators, including ARA70, ARA55, ARA54, ARA160 and ARA24, associated with the N-terminal or the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of AR, have been identified by our group. We first identified the AR-LBD coregulators ARA70, ARA55, and ARA54. Our previous reports suggest that ARA70 can enhance the androgenic activity of 17β-estradiol (E2) and antiandrogens toward AR. It is of interest to compare and determine if the specificity of sex hormones and antiandrogens can be modulated by different coregulators. Our results indicate that, ARA70 is the best coregulator for increasing the androgenic activity of E2. Only ARA70 and ARA55 were able to significantly increase the androgenic activity of hydroxyflutamide, the active metabolite of a widely-used antiandrogen for the treatment of prostate cancer. Furthermore, our results suggest that among the LBD coregulators, ARA70 has a relatively high specificity for AR in the human prostate cancer cell line DU145. Together, our data suggest that the androgenic activity of some sex hormones and antiandrogens can be modulated by selective AR coactivators. In addition to the AR-LBD associated proteins, ARA24 and ARA160 have been identified as AR coregulators, interacting with the AR N-terminal instead of the LBD. Functional analysis revealed that the AR N-terminal coregulator ARA160 could cooperate with the AR LBD-associated coregulator ARA70. Our data indicate that ARA24 could also interact with AR, and that this binding is decreased by an expanding poly-glutamine (Q) length within AR. The length of the poly-Q stretch in the AR N-terminal domain is inversely correlated with the transcriptional activity of AR. Our data suggest that optimal AR transactivation may require interaction of AR with AR coregulators. The identification of factors or peptides that can interrupt androgen-mediated AR-ARA interactions may be useful in the development of better antiandrogens for treating androgen-related diseases, such as prostate cancer.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Journal of the Formosan Medical Association|
|Publication status||Published - 2000 Dec 1|
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