Purpose: Taiwan is a highly endemic area for urothelial carcinoma (UC) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We evaluate the gender effect on the relationship between renal outcome and clinical characteristics of CKD patients with UC. Methods: The clinical and pathologic records of 404 patients were retrospectively analyzed. We calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation, and staged CKD status according to K/DOQI guideline. Results: The female group had a significantly higher proportion (67.6% vs 29.0%, P < 0.001) of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUT-UC). Pathologically, the frequency of high T stage UC (32.4% and 19.1%; P = 0.003), high-grade UC (89.4% and 75.6%; P = 0.001), and larger UC (51.4% and 37.8%; P = 0.009) in the female patients were significantly higher, when compared with the male group. Male gender, diabetes, anemia, poor preoperative renal function, UUT-UC, and low-grade tumor were independent risk factors of poor renal outcome by multivariate analysis in these UC patients. Diabetes was a risk factor of poor renal outcome in male UUT-UC patients, but not in the female patients (P = 0.009). Conclusion: Female gender had a more aggressive histological urothelial carcinoma pattern than male patients did, but paradoxically had a more favorable renal outcome.
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