The DNA-PK maintains cell survival when DNA damage occurs. In addition, aberrant activation of the DNA-PK induces centrosome amplification, suggesting additional roles for this kinase. Here, we showed that the DNA-PK-p53 cascade induced primary cilia formation (ciliogenesis), thus maintaining the DNA damage response under genotoxic stress. Treatment with genotoxic drugs (etoposide, neocarzinostatin, hydroxyurea, or cisplatin) led to ciliogenesis in human retina (RPE1), trophoblast (HTR8), lung (A459), and mouse Leydig progenitor (TM3) cell lines. Upon genotoxic stress, several DNA damage signaling were activated, but only the DNA-PK-p53 cascade contributed to ciliogenesis, as pharmacological inhibition or genetic depletion of this pathway decreased genotoxic stress-induced ciliogenesis. Interestingly, in addition to localizing to the nucleus, activated DNA-PK localized to the base of the primary cilium (mother centriole) and daughter centriole. Genotoxic stress also induced autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy initiation or lysosomal degradation or depletion of ATG7 decreased genotoxic stress-induced ciliogenesis. Besides, inhibition of ciliogenesis by depletion of IFT88 or CEP164 attenuated the genotoxic stress-induced DNA damage response. Thus, our study uncovered the interplay among genotoxic stress, the primary cilium, and the DNA damage response.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology