Background The overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) has been found in atherosclerotic lesions. Previous reports have identified that oxLDL, via the upregulation of lectin-like ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1), modulates the expression of MMPs in endothelial cells. Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE), from Ginkgo biloba leaves, has often been considered as a therapeutic compound for cardiovascular and neurologic diseases. However, further investigation is needed to ascertain the probable molecular mechanisms underlying the antiatherogenic effects of GbE. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GbE on oxLDL-activated MMPs of human endothelial cells and to test the involvement of LOX-1 and protein kinase C (PKC)-α, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). Methods Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were stimulated with oxLDL, with or without GbE treatment. LOX-1 signaling and MMPs expression were tested by Western blotting or activity assay. Further, protein expression levels of PKC-α, ERK, nuclear factor-κB, and PPAR-γ were investigated by Western blotting. Results GbE inhibited the oxLDL-caused upregulation of MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-3. Pretreating with GbE reduced oxLDL-activated LOX-1 expression. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibitors of free radicals, Ca++, PKC, and GbE, inhibited the oxLDL-induced ERK and nuclear factor-κB activation. Lastly, GbE ameliorated the oxLDL-inhibited PPAR-γ function. Conclusions Data obtained in this study indicate that GbE actives its protective effects by regulating the LOX-1-mediated PKC-α/ERK/PPAR-γ/MMP pathway, resulting in the suppression of reactive oxygen species formation and, ultimately, the reduction of MMPs expression in endothelial cells treated with oxLDL.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine