Global gyrokinetic particle simulations with kinetic electrons

Z. Lin, Y. Nishimura, Y. Xiao, I. Holod, W. L. Zhang, L. Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


A toroidal, nonlinear, electrostatic fluid-kinetic hybrid electron model is formulated for global gyrokinetic particle simulations of driftwave turbulence in fusion plasmas. Numerical properties are improved by an expansion of the electron response using a smallness parameter of the ratio of driftwave frequency to electron transit frequency. Linear simulations accurately recover the real frequency and growth rate of toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability. Trapped electrons increase the ITG growth rate by mostly not responding to the ITG modes. Nonlinear simulations of ITG turbulence find that the electron thermal and particle transport are much smaller than the ion thermal transport and that small scale zonal flows are generated through nonlinear interactions of the trapped electrons with the turbulence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)B163-B172
JournalPlasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
Issue number12 B
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Dec 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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