A toroidal, nonlinear, electrostatic fluid-kinetic hybrid electron model is formulated for global gyrokinetic particle simulations of driftwave turbulence in fusion plasmas. Numerical properties are improved by an expansion of the electron response using a smallness parameter of the ratio of driftwave frequency to electron transit frequency. Linear simulations accurately recover the real frequency and growth rate of toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability. Trapped electrons increase the ITG growth rate by mostly not responding to the ITG modes. Nonlinear simulations of ITG turbulence find that the electron thermal and particle transport are much smaller than the ion thermal transport and that small scale zonal flows are generated through nonlinear interactions of the trapped electrons with the turbulence.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Nuclear Energy and Engineering
- Condensed Matter Physics