Variations in tetragonal distortion and the degree of crystallinity of ultrafine BaTiO3 particles - both industrially applied criteria qualifying their polar characteristics - upon growth during annealing were studied on powders, prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis and by the oxalate route respectively. Regardless of the synthetic route both these properties were found to develop approximately to the same extent with increasing primary particle size. The degree of crystallinity was detectable only above a critical value of c/a=1.007 at an average particle size of around 120 nm. Intragranular porosity in hydrothermal powders and the stoichiometric Ba/Ti-ratio are of minor influence. However, distinct differences in particle growth behavior for both powders were observed. This discrepancy is ascribed to a special morphology of the hydrothermal product, where enhanced particle growth was found to be governed by oriented attachment of individual crystallites and by the motion of solid-solid interfaces.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Ceramics and Composites
- Process Chemistry and Technology
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry