Group A Streptococcus Induces LAPosomes via SLO/β1 Integrin/NOX2/ROS Pathway in Endothelial Cells That Are Ineffective in Bacterial Killing and Suppress Xenophagy

Yi Lin Cheng, Chih Feng Kuo, Shiou Ling Lu, Omori Hiroko, Ya Na Wu, Cheng Lu Hsieh, Takeshi Noda, Shang Rung Wu, Robert Anderson, Chiou Feng Lin, Chia Ling Chen, Jiunn Jong Wu, Yee Shin Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen which can cause fatal diseases after invasion into the bloodstream. Although antibiotics and immune surveillance are the main defenses against GAS infection, GAS utilizes internalization into cells as a major immune evasion strategy. Our previous findings revealed that light chain 3 (LC3)-associated single membrane GAS-containing vacuoles in endothelial cells are compromised for bacterial clearance due to insufficient acidification after fusion with lysosomes. However, the characteristics and the activation mechanisms of these LC3-positive compartments are still largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that the LC3-positive GAS is surrounded by single membrane and colocalizes with NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) complex but without ULK1, which are characteristics of LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). Inhibition of NOX2 or reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly reduces GAS multiplication and enhances autolysosome acidification in endothelial cells through converting LAP to conventional xenophagy, which is revealed by enhancement of ULK1 recruitment, attenuation of p70s6k phosphorylation, and formation of the isolation membrane. We also clarify that the inactivation of mTORC1, which is the initiation signal of autophagy, is inhibited by NOX2- and ROS-activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways. In addition, streptolysin O (SLO) of GAS is identified as a crucial inducer of ROS for β1 integrin-mediated LAP induction. After downregulation of β1 integrin, GAS multiplication is reduced, accompanied with LAP inhibition and xenophagy induction. These results demonstrate that GAS infection preferentially induces ineffective LAP to evade xenophagic killing in endothelial cells through the SLO/β1 integrin/NOX2/ROS pathway.IMPORTANCE Our previous reports showed that the LC3-associated GAS-containing single membrane vacuoles are inefficient for bacterial clearance in endothelial cells, which may result in bacteremia. However, the characteristics and the induction mechanisms of these LC3-positive vacuoles are still largely unknown. Here we provide the first evidence that these LC3-positive GAS-containing single membrane compartments appear to be LAPosomes, which are induced by NOX2 and ROS. Through NOX2- and ROS-mediated signaling, GAS preferentially induces LAP and inhibits bacteriostatic xenophagy in endothelial cells. We also provide the first demonstration that β1 integrin acts as the receptor for LAP induction through GAS-produced SLO stimulation in endothelial cells. Our findings reveal the underlying mechanisms of LAP induction and autophagy evasion for GAS multiplication in endothelial cells.

Original languageEnglish
JournalmBio
Volume10
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Oct 1

Fingerprint

Streptococcus
Integrins
Reactive Oxygen Species
Endothelial Cells
Phagocytosis
NADPH Oxidase
Light
Vacuoles
Membranes
Autophagy
NADPH oxidase 1
streptolysin O
Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase
70-kDa Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases
Immune Evasion
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
Bacteremia
Lysosomes
Infection

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology
  • Virology

Cite this

Cheng, Yi Lin ; Kuo, Chih Feng ; Lu, Shiou Ling ; Hiroko, Omori ; Wu, Ya Na ; Hsieh, Cheng Lu ; Noda, Takeshi ; Wu, Shang Rung ; Anderson, Robert ; Lin, Chiou Feng ; Chen, Chia Ling ; Wu, Jiunn Jong ; Lin, Yee Shin. / Group A Streptococcus Induces LAPosomes via SLO/β1 Integrin/NOX2/ROS Pathway in Endothelial Cells That Are Ineffective in Bacterial Killing and Suppress Xenophagy. In: mBio. 2019 ; Vol. 10, No. 5.
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title = "Group A Streptococcus Induces LAPosomes via SLO/β1 Integrin/NOX2/ROS Pathway in Endothelial Cells That Are Ineffective in Bacterial Killing and Suppress Xenophagy",
abstract = "Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen which can cause fatal diseases after invasion into the bloodstream. Although antibiotics and immune surveillance are the main defenses against GAS infection, GAS utilizes internalization into cells as a major immune evasion strategy. Our previous findings revealed that light chain 3 (LC3)-associated single membrane GAS-containing vacuoles in endothelial cells are compromised for bacterial clearance due to insufficient acidification after fusion with lysosomes. However, the characteristics and the activation mechanisms of these LC3-positive compartments are still largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that the LC3-positive GAS is surrounded by single membrane and colocalizes with NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) complex but without ULK1, which are characteristics of LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). Inhibition of NOX2 or reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly reduces GAS multiplication and enhances autolysosome acidification in endothelial cells through converting LAP to conventional xenophagy, which is revealed by enhancement of ULK1 recruitment, attenuation of p70s6k phosphorylation, and formation of the isolation membrane. We also clarify that the inactivation of mTORC1, which is the initiation signal of autophagy, is inhibited by NOX2- and ROS-activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways. In addition, streptolysin O (SLO) of GAS is identified as a crucial inducer of ROS for β1 integrin-mediated LAP induction. After downregulation of β1 integrin, GAS multiplication is reduced, accompanied with LAP inhibition and xenophagy induction. These results demonstrate that GAS infection preferentially induces ineffective LAP to evade xenophagic killing in endothelial cells through the SLO/β1 integrin/NOX2/ROS pathway.IMPORTANCE Our previous reports showed that the LC3-associated GAS-containing single membrane vacuoles are inefficient for bacterial clearance in endothelial cells, which may result in bacteremia. However, the characteristics and the induction mechanisms of these LC3-positive vacuoles are still largely unknown. Here we provide the first evidence that these LC3-positive GAS-containing single membrane compartments appear to be LAPosomes, which are induced by NOX2 and ROS. Through NOX2- and ROS-mediated signaling, GAS preferentially induces LAP and inhibits bacteriostatic xenophagy in endothelial cells. We also provide the first demonstration that β1 integrin acts as the receptor for LAP induction through GAS-produced SLO stimulation in endothelial cells. Our findings reveal the underlying mechanisms of LAP induction and autophagy evasion for GAS multiplication in endothelial cells.",
author = "Cheng, {Yi Lin} and Kuo, {Chih Feng} and Lu, {Shiou Ling} and Omori Hiroko and Wu, {Ya Na} and Hsieh, {Cheng Lu} and Takeshi Noda and Wu, {Shang Rung} and Robert Anderson and Lin, {Chiou Feng} and Chen, {Chia Ling} and Wu, {Jiunn Jong} and Lin, {Yee Shin}",
year = "2019",
month = "10",
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doi = "10.1128/mBio.02148-19",
language = "English",
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journal = "mBio",
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Group A Streptococcus Induces LAPosomes via SLO/β1 Integrin/NOX2/ROS Pathway in Endothelial Cells That Are Ineffective in Bacterial Killing and Suppress Xenophagy. / Cheng, Yi Lin; Kuo, Chih Feng; Lu, Shiou Ling; Hiroko, Omori; Wu, Ya Na; Hsieh, Cheng Lu; Noda, Takeshi; Wu, Shang Rung; Anderson, Robert; Lin, Chiou Feng; Chen, Chia Ling; Wu, Jiunn Jong; Lin, Yee Shin.

In: mBio, Vol. 10, No. 5, 01.10.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Group A Streptococcus Induces LAPosomes via SLO/β1 Integrin/NOX2/ROS Pathway in Endothelial Cells That Are Ineffective in Bacterial Killing and Suppress Xenophagy

AU - Cheng, Yi Lin

AU - Kuo, Chih Feng

AU - Lu, Shiou Ling

AU - Hiroko, Omori

AU - Wu, Ya Na

AU - Hsieh, Cheng Lu

AU - Noda, Takeshi

AU - Wu, Shang Rung

AU - Anderson, Robert

AU - Lin, Chiou Feng

AU - Chen, Chia Ling

AU - Wu, Jiunn Jong

AU - Lin, Yee Shin

PY - 2019/10/1

Y1 - 2019/10/1

N2 - Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen which can cause fatal diseases after invasion into the bloodstream. Although antibiotics and immune surveillance are the main defenses against GAS infection, GAS utilizes internalization into cells as a major immune evasion strategy. Our previous findings revealed that light chain 3 (LC3)-associated single membrane GAS-containing vacuoles in endothelial cells are compromised for bacterial clearance due to insufficient acidification after fusion with lysosomes. However, the characteristics and the activation mechanisms of these LC3-positive compartments are still largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that the LC3-positive GAS is surrounded by single membrane and colocalizes with NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) complex but without ULK1, which are characteristics of LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). Inhibition of NOX2 or reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly reduces GAS multiplication and enhances autolysosome acidification in endothelial cells through converting LAP to conventional xenophagy, which is revealed by enhancement of ULK1 recruitment, attenuation of p70s6k phosphorylation, and formation of the isolation membrane. We also clarify that the inactivation of mTORC1, which is the initiation signal of autophagy, is inhibited by NOX2- and ROS-activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways. In addition, streptolysin O (SLO) of GAS is identified as a crucial inducer of ROS for β1 integrin-mediated LAP induction. After downregulation of β1 integrin, GAS multiplication is reduced, accompanied with LAP inhibition and xenophagy induction. These results demonstrate that GAS infection preferentially induces ineffective LAP to evade xenophagic killing in endothelial cells through the SLO/β1 integrin/NOX2/ROS pathway.IMPORTANCE Our previous reports showed that the LC3-associated GAS-containing single membrane vacuoles are inefficient for bacterial clearance in endothelial cells, which may result in bacteremia. However, the characteristics and the induction mechanisms of these LC3-positive vacuoles are still largely unknown. Here we provide the first evidence that these LC3-positive GAS-containing single membrane compartments appear to be LAPosomes, which are induced by NOX2 and ROS. Through NOX2- and ROS-mediated signaling, GAS preferentially induces LAP and inhibits bacteriostatic xenophagy in endothelial cells. We also provide the first demonstration that β1 integrin acts as the receptor for LAP induction through GAS-produced SLO stimulation in endothelial cells. Our findings reveal the underlying mechanisms of LAP induction and autophagy evasion for GAS multiplication in endothelial cells.

AB - Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen which can cause fatal diseases after invasion into the bloodstream. Although antibiotics and immune surveillance are the main defenses against GAS infection, GAS utilizes internalization into cells as a major immune evasion strategy. Our previous findings revealed that light chain 3 (LC3)-associated single membrane GAS-containing vacuoles in endothelial cells are compromised for bacterial clearance due to insufficient acidification after fusion with lysosomes. However, the characteristics and the activation mechanisms of these LC3-positive compartments are still largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that the LC3-positive GAS is surrounded by single membrane and colocalizes with NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) complex but without ULK1, which are characteristics of LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). Inhibition of NOX2 or reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly reduces GAS multiplication and enhances autolysosome acidification in endothelial cells through converting LAP to conventional xenophagy, which is revealed by enhancement of ULK1 recruitment, attenuation of p70s6k phosphorylation, and formation of the isolation membrane. We also clarify that the inactivation of mTORC1, which is the initiation signal of autophagy, is inhibited by NOX2- and ROS-activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways. In addition, streptolysin O (SLO) of GAS is identified as a crucial inducer of ROS for β1 integrin-mediated LAP induction. After downregulation of β1 integrin, GAS multiplication is reduced, accompanied with LAP inhibition and xenophagy induction. These results demonstrate that GAS infection preferentially induces ineffective LAP to evade xenophagic killing in endothelial cells through the SLO/β1 integrin/NOX2/ROS pathway.IMPORTANCE Our previous reports showed that the LC3-associated GAS-containing single membrane vacuoles are inefficient for bacterial clearance in endothelial cells, which may result in bacteremia. However, the characteristics and the induction mechanisms of these LC3-positive vacuoles are still largely unknown. Here we provide the first evidence that these LC3-positive GAS-containing single membrane compartments appear to be LAPosomes, which are induced by NOX2 and ROS. Through NOX2- and ROS-mediated signaling, GAS preferentially induces LAP and inhibits bacteriostatic xenophagy in endothelial cells. We also provide the first demonstration that β1 integrin acts as the receptor for LAP induction through GAS-produced SLO stimulation in endothelial cells. Our findings reveal the underlying mechanisms of LAP induction and autophagy evasion for GAS multiplication in endothelial cells.

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