Hardy-type paradoxes for an arbitrary symmetric bipartite Bell scenario

Kai Siang Chen, Shiladitya Mal, Gelo Noel M. Tabia, Yeong Cherng Liang

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As with a Bell inequality, Hardy's paradox manifests a contradiction between the prediction given by quantum theory and local hidden-variable theories. In this work, we give two generalizations of Hardy's arguments for manifesting such a paradox to an arbitrary, but symmetric, Bell scenario involving two observers. Our constructions recover that of Meng et al. [Phys. Rev. A 98, 062103 (2018)10.1103/PhysRevA.98.062103] and that first discussed by Cabello [Phys. Rev. A 65, 032108 (2002)1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.65.032108] as special cases. Among the two constructions, one can be naturally interpreted as a demonstration of the failure of the transitivity of implications (FTI). Moreover, one of their special cases is equivalent to a ladder-proof-type argument for Hardy's paradox. Through a suitably generalized notion of success probability called degree of success, we provide evidence showing that the FTI-based formulation exhibits a higher degree of success compared with all other existing proposals. Moreover, this advantage seems to persist even if we allow imperfections in realizing the zero-probability constraints in such paradoxes. Explicit quantum strategies realizing several of these proofs of nonlocality without inequalities are provided.

Original languageEnglish
Article number042206
JournalPhysical Review A
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Apr

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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