Herpes zoster associated with stroke incidence in people living with human immunodeficiency virus: a nested case–control study

Han Chang Ku, Yi Lin Wu, Hei Tung Yip, Cheng Yang Hsieh, Chung Yi Li, Huang Tz Ou, Yen Chin Chen, Nai Ying Ko

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1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The incidence of stroke is increasing among younger people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The burden of stroke has shifted toward the young people living with HIV, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. People infected with herpes zoster (HZ) were more likely to suffer stroke than the general population. However, the association of HZ infection with the incidence of stroke among patients with HIV remains unclear. Methods: A nested case–control study was conducted with patients with HIV registered in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database in 2000–2017. A total of 509 stroke cases were 1:10 matched to 5090 non-stroke controls on age, sex, and date of first stroke diagnosis. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of stroke incidence. Results: The odds ratio of stroke was significantly higher in the HIV-infected population with HZ (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.42–2.41). A significantly increased AOR of stroke was associated with hypertension (AOR: 3.53, 95% CI: 2.86–4.34), heart disease (AOR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.54–3.48), chronic kidney disease (AOR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.16–2.85), hepatitis C virus infection (AOR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.22–1.83), hyperlipidemia (OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.12–1.78), and treatment with protease inhibitors (AOR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.05–1.69). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that HZ concurrent with HIV may increase the risk of stroke. The incidence rates of stroke were independent of common risk factors, suggesting strategies for early prevention of HZ infection among people living with HIV.

Original languageEnglish
Article number636
JournalBMC infectious diseases
Volume23
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Dec

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Infectious Diseases

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