The present studies aimed to identify the 70-kDa nuclear protein that binds to an insulin-responsive element in the rat angiotensinogen gene promoter and to define its action on angiotensinogen gene expression. Nuclear proteins were isolated from rat kidney proximal tubular cells and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis. The 70-kDa nuclear protein was detected by Southwestern blotting and subsequently identified by mass spectrometry, which revealed that it was identical to 65-kDa heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K). hnRNP K bound to the insulin-responsive element of the rat angiotensinogen gene was revealed by a gel mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. hnRNP K inhibited angiotensinogen mRNA expression and promoter activity. In contrast, hnRNP K down-expression by small interference RNA enhanced angiotensinogen mRNA expression. Moreover, hnRNP K interacted with hnRNP F in pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Co-transfection of hnRNPK and hnRNP F further suppressed angiotensinogen mRNA expression. Finally, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that high glucose increases and insulin inhibits hnRNP K expression in rat kidney proximal tubular cells. In conclusion, our experiments revealed that hnRNP K is a nuclear protein that binds to the insulin-responsive element of the rat angiotensinogen gene promoter and modulates angiotensinogen gene transcription in the kidney.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology