This study explored the prognostic value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in rectal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT).Between January 2006 and December 2016, 184 patients with newly-diagnosed rectal cancer receiving neoadjuvant CCRT were enrolled. Risk of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models. Stratified survival analyses were also performed between post-neoadjuvant pathological (yp) stage.The mean follow-up time was 72.73 ± 36.82 months. High- and low-NLR patients differed significantly in both 5-year DFS (P = .026) and OS (P = .016). High- and low-PLR patients differed significantly in 5-year DFS (P = .011) but not OS (P = .185). Multivariate analyses revealed worse 5-year DFS (adjusted HR [aHR] = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.473-5.41; P = .002) and 5-year OS (aHR = 1.871; 95%CI: 1.029-3.4; P = .04) in the high-NLR group after adjusting for covariates. After adjustments, the high-PLR group had inferior 5-year DFS (aHR = 2.274; 95%CI: 1.473-5.419; P = .038) but not 5-year OS (aHR = 1.156; 95%CI: 0.650-2.056; P = .622). Further stratified analysis indicated that yp stage II and III patients with high NLR had worse 5-year DFS (aHR = 2.334; 95% CI: 1.158-4.725; P = .018) and OS (aHR = 2.226; 95% CI: 1.165-4.251; P = .015). Additionally, yp stage II and III patients with high PLR had inferior 5-year DFS (aHR = 2.012; 95% CI: 1.049-3.861; P = .036).Pre-CCRT NLR and PLR are independent prognostic factors for rectal cancer patients and could be used as a potential biomarker to identify high-risk patients for more intense treatment and care.
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