Surface-enhancement Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a technique to observe analytes such as molecules, polymers, or biological materials at low concentration per surface area by high amplification of the Raman signal [1-3]. Every molecule has its unique Raman spectrum, which makes SERS a powerful tool for detection . SERS effect was discovered by Fleischmann et al. . He reported the first high-quality Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed on an electrochemically roughened surface of a silver electrode. However, understanding the new phenomena came rather through other researchers. High-enhancement SERS substrate was discovered independently by Craighton et al.  and Van Duyne et al.  in 1977. In 1980, theoretical explanations of the SERS effect were given by Gersten and Nitzan .
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes