Premature atrial complexes (PACs) have been suggested to increase the risk of adverse events. The distribution of PAC burden and its dose–response effects on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death had not been elucidated clearly. We analyzed 15,893 patients in a medical referral center from July 1st, 2011, to December 31st, 2018. Multivariate regression driven by ln PAC (beats per 24 h plus 1) or quartiles of PAC burden were examined. Older group had higher PAC burden than younger group (p for trend < 0.001), and both genders shared similar PACs distribution. In Cox model, ln PAC remained an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.09 per ln PAC increase, 95% CI = 1.06‒1.12, p < 0.001). PACs were a significant risk factor in cause-specific model (HR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.05‒1.22, p = 0.001) or sub-distribution model (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.04‒1.21, p = 0.004). In ordinal PAC model, 4th quartile group had significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality than those in 1st quartile group (HR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.13‒1.94, p = 0.005), but no difference in cardiovascular death were found in competing risk analysis. In subgroup analysis, the risk of high PAC burden was consistently higher than in low-burden group across pre-specified subgroups. In conclusion, PAC burden has a dose response effect on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death.
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