Five B-class MADS-box genes, including four APETALA3 (AP3)-like PeMADS2-5 and one PISTILLATA (PI )-like PeMADS6, specify the spectacular flower morphology in orchids. The PI-like PeMADS6 ubiquitously expresses in all floral organs. The four AP3-like genes, resulted from two duplication events, express ubiquitously at floral primordia and early floral organ stages, but show distinct expression profiles at late floral organ primordia and floral bud stages. Here, we isolated the upstream sequences of PeMADS2-6 and studied the regulatory mechanism for their distinct gene expression. Phylogenetic footprinting analysis of the 1.3-kb upstream sequences of AP3-like PeMADS2-5 showed that their promoter regions have sufficiently diverged and contributed to their subfunctionalization. The amplified promoter sequences of PeMADS2-6 could drive beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene expression in all floral organs, similar to their expression at the floral primordia stage. The promoter sequence of PeMADS4, exclusively expressed in lip and column, showed a 1.6-3-fold higher expression in lip/column than in sepal/petal. Furthermore, we noted a 4.9-fold increase in histone acetylation (H3K9K14ac) in the translation start region of PeMADS4 in lip as compared in petal. All these results suggest that the regulation via the upstream sequences and increased H3K9K14ac level may act synergistically to display distinct expression profiles of the AP3-like genes at late floral organ primordia stage for Phalaenopsis floral morphogenesis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)