Emerging evidence has indicated that the perturbed expression of homocysteine (Hcy) may induce mitochondrial dysfunction and disturb bone metabolism. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are two critical sensors that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and have been recognized as therapeutic targets in osteoarthritis (OA). This study was designed to test whether Hcy caused pro-osteoarthritic changes through modulation of SIRT1 and AMPK. Our results showed that administration of Hcy reduced the SIRT1/AMPK/PGC-1α signaling in chondrocytes, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction as a result of increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. Moreover, we demonstrated that the expression of NF-κB, COX-2, IL-8, and MMP-13 were elevated subsequent to inhibition of SIRT1/AMPK/PGC-1α/PPAR-γ pathway by homocysteine, thereby causing detrimental effects on chondrocytes. In the animal model of diet-induced hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), we observed the similar findings that SIRT1/PGC-1α/PPAR-γ cascades were downregulated with elevated MMP-13 and COX-2. Taken together, data from the current study revealed that the reduced SIRT1 by Hcy may contribute to degradative cartilage process, which provided insight into the etiology of OA.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Organic Chemistry
- Clinical Biochemistry