Image-based decision making for reliable and proper diagnosing in NIFTI format using watermarking

Kamred Udham Singh, Akshay Kumar, Teekam Singh, Mangey Ram

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Nowadays, advancement in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography Scan (CT-Scan) technologies have defined modern neuroimaging and drastically change the diagnosing of disease in the world healthcare system. These imaging technologies generate NIFTI (Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative) images. Due to COVID-19 last several months CT-Scan has been performed on millions of the CORONA patients, so billions of the NIFTI images have been produced and communicate over the internet for the diagnosing purpose to detect the coronavirus. The communication of these medical images over the internet yielding the major problem of integrity, copyright protection, and other ethical issues for the world health care system. Another critical problem is that; is doctor diagnose the impeccable medical image of the patient because a large amount of COVID-19 patient’s data exists. For proper diagnosing it is also necessary to identify impeccable medical image. Therefore, to address these problems a secure and robust watermarking scheme is needed for these images. Various watermarking schemes have been developed for bmp,.jpg,.png, DICOM, and other image formats but the noticeable contribution is not reported for the NIFTI images. In this paper a robust and hybrid watermarking scheme for NIFTI images based on Lifting Wavelet Transform (LWT), MSVD (Multiresolution Singular Value Decomposition) and QR factorization. The combination of LWT, QR, and MSVD helps in retaining the sensitivity of the NIFTI image and improve the robustness of the watermarking scheme. In this scheme, multiple watermarks are inserted across the first slice of the NIFTI image. The proposed watermarking scheme is sustained against various noise attacks and performance is measured in terms of PSNR, SNR, SSIM, Quality of image, and Normalized correlation. Quality of the image is much significant that lie between.99994 to.99998 and SSIM reported from.94 to.99. Whereas the PSNR of the proposed scheme lies between 56.76 to 57.28 db and NC values lie between.9993 to.9998. which shows that the results are better than the existing schemes where PSNR is lies between 32.66 to 52.02 db. Watermarking, NIFTI, MSVD, LWT, QR and Image.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)39577-39603
Number of pages27
JournalMultimedia Tools and Applications
Issue number27
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Nov

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Media Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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