Impact damage visualization in a honeycomb composite panel through laser inspection using zero-lag cross-correlation imaging condition

Donato Girolamo, Huan Yu Chang, Fuh Gwo Yuan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


A fully non-contact laser-based nondestructive inspection (NDI) system is developed to detect and visualize damage in structures. The study focuses on the size quantification and characterization of a barely visible impact damage (BVID) in a honeycomb composite panel. The hardware consists of a Q-switched Nd:YAG pulse laser that probes the panel by generating broadband guided waves via thermo-elastic expansion. The laser, in combination with a set of galvano-mirrors is used to raster scan over a two-dimensional surface covering the damaged region of an impacted quasi-isotropic [60/0/−60]s honeycomb composite panel. The out-of-plane velocities are measured at a fixed location normal to the surface by a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). An ultrasonic full wavefield assembled from the three-dimensional space-time data matrix in the interrogated area is first acquired and then processed for imaging the impacted damage area. A wavenumber filtering technique in terms of wave vectors is applied to distinguish the forward and backward wavefields in the wavenumber-frequency domain. A zero-lag cross correlation (ZLCC) imaging condition is then employed in the space-frequency domain for damage imaging. The ZLCC imaging condition consists of cross correlating the incident and reflected wavefields in the entire scanned region. The condition not only images the damage boundary between incident and reflected waves outside the damage region but also, for longer time windows, enables to capture the momentary standing waves formed within the damaged region. The ZLCC imaging condition imaged two delaminated region: a main delamination, which was a skewed elliptic with major and minor axis lengths roughly 17 mm and 10 mm respectively, and a secondary delamination region approximately 6 mm by 4 mm, however, which can only be shown at higher frequency range around 80–95 kHz. To conclude, the ZLCC results were in very good agreement with ultrasonic C-scan and X-ray computed tomographic (X-ray CT) scan results. Since the imaging condition is performed in the space-frequency domain, the imaging from ZLCC can also reveal resonance modes which are shown in the main delaminated area by windowing a narrow frequency band sequentially.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)152-165
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jul

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


Dive into the research topics of 'Impact damage visualization in a honeycomb composite panel through laser inspection using zero-lag cross-correlation imaging condition'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this