Impact of bilateral motion control shoes with outsole adjustment on gait asymmetry in individuals with mild leg length discrepancy

Amornthep Jankaew, Shing Jye Chen, Cheng Chieh Lin, Cheng Hsin Tsai, Ming Tung Huang, Cheng Feng Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Footwear adjustment is recommended in the management plan of leg length discrepancy. However, it is not clear how the outsole of motion control shoe adjustment influences trunk symmetry and walking performance. Research question: Does bilateral adjustment of the outsole affect trunk and pelvis symmetry and ground reaction force during walking in individuals with leg length discrepancy? Methods: 20 mild leg length discrepancy participants were recruited into a cross-sectional study. All subjects performed a walking trial with their habitual shoes to determine the outsole adjustment. Four trials of walking were carried out in the order of unadjusted and bilateral adjusted motion control air-cushion shoes. Shoulder level differences and trunk and pelvic motion were assessed, while the ground reaction force at the heel strike was reported. A paired t-test was performed to compare the differences between the conditions with a significance level at p < 0.05. Results: During walking trials, mild leg length discrepancy participants with the adjusted shoe displayed lower variations in the maximum shoulder height differences (p = 0.001) and trunk rotation angle (p = 0.002) than those with the unadjusted shoe. Also, there was a significant reduction in the vertical ground reaction force (p = 0.030), but not in the anteroposterior or mediolateral directions, during walking in the adjusted shoe condition compared to the unadjusted shoe condition. Significance: The outsole adjustment of the bilateral motion control shoes can improve trunk symmetry while decreasing the ground impact at the heel strike. The study provides additional information to prescribe or recommend footwear adjustment to improve walking symmetry in leg length discrepancy participants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)80-85
Number of pages6
JournalGait and Posture
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jun

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Rehabilitation


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