Impact of mold growth on di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate emission from moist wallpaper

Nai Tzu Chen, Ching Hui Shih, Chien Cheng Jung, Hsu Nai-Yun Hsu, Chung Yu Chen, Ching Chang Lee, Huey Jen Su

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Flood damage can increase indoor concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and molds in households with wallpaper. Wallpaper water content can affect its DEHP emission into indoor environments; however, the influence of mold growth on this DEHP emission remains unclear. Here, we evaluated whether mold growth affects DEHP emission from moist wallpaper (moist WP). Experiments were conducted in glass chambers with wallpaper containing 12.7% (w/w) DEHP and a dust tray sample system at approximately 28 °C and 100% relative humidity (RH). The experimental groups were (1) moist WP, (2) moist WP + Aspergillus versicolor (AV), (3) moist WP + Cladosporium cladosporioides, (4) moist WP + Penicillium chrysogenum, and (5) moist WP + mold mixture. Mold growth on the wallpaper and DEHP emission into air and onto dust were analyzed at nine time-points over 30 days. Initially, the moist WP group emitted relatively high concentrations of DEHP into air, but after at least 8 days, the concentration of DEHP emitted by the mold-added groups exceeded that of the moist WP group. DEHP emission onto dust, especially from the moist WP group, increased considerably at day 15. During the experimental period, the moist WP (13.63 ± 4.67 μg) and moist WP + AV (13.93 ± 0.49 μg) groups emitted higher cumulative amounts of DEHP onto dust. During the 30-day experimental period, obvious mold growth occurred over days 15–30. Moreover, the moist WP group exhibited relatively higher and lower cumulative DEHP emission into air than the mold-added groups during days 2–10 (2.71 vs. 1.94–2.94 μg) and 15–30 (1.16 vs. 1.61–2.12), respectively; a contrasting trend was observed for cumulative DEHP emission onto dust. In conclusion, mold growth affects DEHP emission from water-damaged wallpaper, and the removal or cleaning of wet wallpaper, particularly those with visible mold growth, is critical from a public health perspective.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere10404
JournalHeliyon
Volume8
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Sep

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General

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