Quantum key agreement (QKA) protocol is a method for negotiating a fair and secure key among mutually untrusted participants. Recently, Xu et al. (Quantum Inf. Process. 13:2587–2594, 2014) proposed a multi-party QKA protocol based on Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. However, this study points out that Xu et al.’s protocol cannot provide the fairness property. That is, the last involved participant in the protocol can manipulate the final shared secret key without being detected by the other participants. Moreover, according to Yu et al.’s research (2015), Xu et al.’s protocol cannot avoid the public discussion attack too. To avoid these weaknesses, an improved QKA protocol is proposed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)