In situ Sn2+-incorporation synthesis of titanate nanotubes for photocatalytic dye degradation under visible light illumination

Chien Cheng Tsai, Liang Che Chen, Te Fu Yeh, Hsisheng Teng

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18 Citations (Scopus)


Sn2+-incorporated titanate nanotubes, prepared by washing a layered sodium titanate with a SnCl2 solution for tube formation, exhibit noticeable photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. This in situ synthesis results in a Sn/Ti ratio of approximately 0.6. Because of the introduction of Sn2+ ions, the Sn 5s orbital replaces the O 2p orbital as the top level of the valence band of titanate nanotubes. Optical absorption analysis shows that Sn doping reduces the bandgap of titanate nanotubes from 3.5 to 2.6 eV. Oxidation of the Sn2+-incorporated titanate nanotubes leads to oxidation of Sn2+ to Sn4+, hence, widening the bandgap. Under visible light irradiation, Sn 2+-incorporated titanate nanotubes effectively degrade methylene blue in an aqueous solution, whereas the bare titanate nanotubes exhibit substantially lower photocatalytic activity. Photoluminescence analysis demonstrates that the induced charges from excitation of the Sn2+ ions tend to be relaxed through chemical interactions, rather than irradiative recombination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-101
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Alloys and Compounds
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Jan 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry

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