Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity, platelet aggregation and thromboxane B 2 production by two environmental toxicants

m- and o-cresol

Chiu Po Chan, Ho Yuan-Soon, Ying-Jan Wang, Wan Hong Lan, Lin I. Chen, Yi Jane Chen, Bor Ru Lin, Mei Chi Chang, Jiiang Huei Jeng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cresol is a well-known environmental pollutant, toluene metabolite, uremic toxicant and accidental poisoning product. Formocresol, a preparation of formalin and cresol, is also used as a root canal medicament and for pulpotomy of primary teeth. However, little is known about its effect on cardiovascular system. In this study, m-cresol inhibited the AA-induced platelet aggregation by 43-97% at concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1 mM. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation was also inhibited by 0.25-1 mM of m-cresol by 47-98%. Accordingly, o-cresol (0.1-0.5 mM) also inhibited the AA-induced platelet aggregation by 46-96% and the collagen-induced platelet aggregation by 35-88% at concentrations of 0.1-1 mM. AA- and collagen-induced platelet thromboxane B 2 (TXB 2) production was inhibited by even 0.1 mM of m-cresol with 88 and 54% of inhibition, respectively. The o-cresol (0.1 mM) also inhibited the AA- and collagen-induced platelet TXB 2 production with 91 and 97% respectively. Although m- and o-cresol (<1 mM) showed little effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, they effectively inhibited the thrombin-induced platelet TXB 2 production. The m-cresol (2 and 5 mM) inhibited the COX-1 activity by 55-99%, but showed little effect on COX-2 enzyme activity. Moreover, o-cresol (0.5 and 1 mM) inhibited the COX-1 activity by 40-95%. COX-2 enzyme activity was inhibited by 68% at a concentration of 5 mM o-cresol. These results indicate that acute cresol-poisoning, direct root canal medication with formocresol or long-term occupational exposure to cresol and toluene may potentially suppress blood clot formation and lead to tissue hemorrhage via inhibition of platelet aggregation, TXB 2 production and COX enzyme activity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-104
Number of pages10
JournalToxicology
Volume208
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Mar 1

Fingerprint

cresol
Thromboxanes
Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
Platelets
Platelet Aggregation
Agglomeration
Collagen
Blood Platelets
Toluene
Enzyme activity
Thrombin
Poisoning
Root Canal Irrigants
Enzymes
Pulpotomy
Environmental Pollutants
Deciduous Tooth
Dental Pulp Cavity
Occupational Exposure
Cardiovascular System

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology

Cite this

Chan, Chiu Po ; Yuan-Soon, Ho ; Wang, Ying-Jan ; Lan, Wan Hong ; Chen, Lin I. ; Chen, Yi Jane ; Lin, Bor Ru ; Chang, Mei Chi ; Jeng, Jiiang Huei. / Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity, platelet aggregation and thromboxane B 2 production by two environmental toxicants : m- and o-cresol. In: Toxicology. 2005 ; Vol. 208, No. 1. pp. 95-104.
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title = "Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity, platelet aggregation and thromboxane B 2 production by two environmental toxicants: m- and o-cresol",
abstract = "Cresol is a well-known environmental pollutant, toluene metabolite, uremic toxicant and accidental poisoning product. Formocresol, a preparation of formalin and cresol, is also used as a root canal medicament and for pulpotomy of primary teeth. However, little is known about its effect on cardiovascular system. In this study, m-cresol inhibited the AA-induced platelet aggregation by 43-97{\%} at concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1 mM. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation was also inhibited by 0.25-1 mM of m-cresol by 47-98{\%}. Accordingly, o-cresol (0.1-0.5 mM) also inhibited the AA-induced platelet aggregation by 46-96{\%} and the collagen-induced platelet aggregation by 35-88{\%} at concentrations of 0.1-1 mM. AA- and collagen-induced platelet thromboxane B 2 (TXB 2) production was inhibited by even 0.1 mM of m-cresol with 88 and 54{\%} of inhibition, respectively. The o-cresol (0.1 mM) also inhibited the AA- and collagen-induced platelet TXB 2 production with 91 and 97{\%} respectively. Although m- and o-cresol (<1 mM) showed little effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, they effectively inhibited the thrombin-induced platelet TXB 2 production. The m-cresol (2 and 5 mM) inhibited the COX-1 activity by 55-99{\%}, but showed little effect on COX-2 enzyme activity. Moreover, o-cresol (0.5 and 1 mM) inhibited the COX-1 activity by 40-95{\%}. COX-2 enzyme activity was inhibited by 68{\%} at a concentration of 5 mM o-cresol. These results indicate that acute cresol-poisoning, direct root canal medication with formocresol or long-term occupational exposure to cresol and toluene may potentially suppress blood clot formation and lead to tissue hemorrhage via inhibition of platelet aggregation, TXB 2 production and COX enzyme activity.",
author = "Chan, {Chiu Po} and Ho Yuan-Soon and Ying-Jan Wang and Lan, {Wan Hong} and Chen, {Lin I.} and Chen, {Yi Jane} and Lin, {Bor Ru} and Chang, {Mei Chi} and Jeng, {Jiiang Huei}",
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Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity, platelet aggregation and thromboxane B 2 production by two environmental toxicants : m- and o-cresol. / Chan, Chiu Po; Yuan-Soon, Ho; Wang, Ying-Jan; Lan, Wan Hong; Chen, Lin I.; Chen, Yi Jane; Lin, Bor Ru; Chang, Mei Chi; Jeng, Jiiang Huei.

In: Toxicology, Vol. 208, No. 1, 01.03.2005, p. 95-104.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity, platelet aggregation and thromboxane B 2 production by two environmental toxicants

T2 - m- and o-cresol

AU - Chan, Chiu Po

AU - Yuan-Soon, Ho

AU - Wang, Ying-Jan

AU - Lan, Wan Hong

AU - Chen, Lin I.

AU - Chen, Yi Jane

AU - Lin, Bor Ru

AU - Chang, Mei Chi

AU - Jeng, Jiiang Huei

PY - 2005/3/1

Y1 - 2005/3/1

N2 - Cresol is a well-known environmental pollutant, toluene metabolite, uremic toxicant and accidental poisoning product. Formocresol, a preparation of formalin and cresol, is also used as a root canal medicament and for pulpotomy of primary teeth. However, little is known about its effect on cardiovascular system. In this study, m-cresol inhibited the AA-induced platelet aggregation by 43-97% at concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1 mM. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation was also inhibited by 0.25-1 mM of m-cresol by 47-98%. Accordingly, o-cresol (0.1-0.5 mM) also inhibited the AA-induced platelet aggregation by 46-96% and the collagen-induced platelet aggregation by 35-88% at concentrations of 0.1-1 mM. AA- and collagen-induced platelet thromboxane B 2 (TXB 2) production was inhibited by even 0.1 mM of m-cresol with 88 and 54% of inhibition, respectively. The o-cresol (0.1 mM) also inhibited the AA- and collagen-induced platelet TXB 2 production with 91 and 97% respectively. Although m- and o-cresol (<1 mM) showed little effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, they effectively inhibited the thrombin-induced platelet TXB 2 production. The m-cresol (2 and 5 mM) inhibited the COX-1 activity by 55-99%, but showed little effect on COX-2 enzyme activity. Moreover, o-cresol (0.5 and 1 mM) inhibited the COX-1 activity by 40-95%. COX-2 enzyme activity was inhibited by 68% at a concentration of 5 mM o-cresol. These results indicate that acute cresol-poisoning, direct root canal medication with formocresol or long-term occupational exposure to cresol and toluene may potentially suppress blood clot formation and lead to tissue hemorrhage via inhibition of platelet aggregation, TXB 2 production and COX enzyme activity.

AB - Cresol is a well-known environmental pollutant, toluene metabolite, uremic toxicant and accidental poisoning product. Formocresol, a preparation of formalin and cresol, is also used as a root canal medicament and for pulpotomy of primary teeth. However, little is known about its effect on cardiovascular system. In this study, m-cresol inhibited the AA-induced platelet aggregation by 43-97% at concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1 mM. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation was also inhibited by 0.25-1 mM of m-cresol by 47-98%. Accordingly, o-cresol (0.1-0.5 mM) also inhibited the AA-induced platelet aggregation by 46-96% and the collagen-induced platelet aggregation by 35-88% at concentrations of 0.1-1 mM. AA- and collagen-induced platelet thromboxane B 2 (TXB 2) production was inhibited by even 0.1 mM of m-cresol with 88 and 54% of inhibition, respectively. The o-cresol (0.1 mM) also inhibited the AA- and collagen-induced platelet TXB 2 production with 91 and 97% respectively. Although m- and o-cresol (<1 mM) showed little effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, they effectively inhibited the thrombin-induced platelet TXB 2 production. The m-cresol (2 and 5 mM) inhibited the COX-1 activity by 55-99%, but showed little effect on COX-2 enzyme activity. Moreover, o-cresol (0.5 and 1 mM) inhibited the COX-1 activity by 40-95%. COX-2 enzyme activity was inhibited by 68% at a concentration of 5 mM o-cresol. These results indicate that acute cresol-poisoning, direct root canal medication with formocresol or long-term occupational exposure to cresol and toluene may potentially suppress blood clot formation and lead to tissue hemorrhage via inhibition of platelet aggregation, TXB 2 production and COX enzyme activity.

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