Inhibition of glioma growth by minocycline is mediated through endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis and autophagic cell death

Wei Ting Liu, Chih-Yuan Huang, I. Chen Lu, Po-Wu Gean

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

BackgroundWe have reported that minocycline (Mino) induced autophagic death in glioma cells. In the present study, we characterize the upstream regulators that control autophagy and switch cell death from autophagic to apoptotic.MethodsWestern blotting and immunofluorescence were used to detect the expressions of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), transcription factor GADD153 (CHOP), and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). Short hairpin (sh)RNA was used to knock down eIF2α or CHOP expression. Autophagy was assessed by the conversion of light chain (LC)3-I to LC3-II and green fluorescent protein puncta formation. An intracranial mouse model and bioluminescent imaging were used to assess the effect of Mino on tumor growth and survival time of mice.ResultsThe expression of GRP78 in glioma was high, whereas in normal glia it was low. Mino treatment increased GRP78 expression and reduced binding of GRP78 with protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase. Subsequently, Mino increased eIF2α phosphorylation and CHOP expression. Knockdown of eIF2α or CHOP reduced Mino-induced LC3-II conversion and glioma cell death. When autophagy was inhibited, Mino induced cell death in a caspase-dependent manner. Rapamycin in combination with Mino produced synergistic effects on LC3 conversion, reduction of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway, and glioma cell death. Bioluminescent imaging showed that Mino inhibited the growth of glioma and prolonged survival time and that these effects were blocked by shCHOP.ConclusionsMino induced autophagy by eliciting endoplasmic reticulum stress response and switched cell death from autophagy to apoptosis when autophagy was blocked. These results coupled with clinical availability and a safe track record make Mino a promising agent for the treatment of malignant gliomas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1127-1141
Number of pages15
JournalNeuro-Oncology
Volume15
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Sep 1

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Minocycline
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
Autophagy
Glioma
Apoptosis
Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2
Eukaryotic Initiation Factors
Growth
Cell Death
Transcription Factor CHOP
70-kDa Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases
Sirolimus
Caspases
Green Fluorescent Proteins
Neuroglia
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Protein Kinases
Small Interfering RNA
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Phosphotransferases

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

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title = "Inhibition of glioma growth by minocycline is mediated through endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis and autophagic cell death",
abstract = "BackgroundWe have reported that minocycline (Mino) induced autophagic death in glioma cells. In the present study, we characterize the upstream regulators that control autophagy and switch cell death from autophagic to apoptotic.MethodsWestern blotting and immunofluorescence were used to detect the expressions of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), transcription factor GADD153 (CHOP), and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). Short hairpin (sh)RNA was used to knock down eIF2α or CHOP expression. Autophagy was assessed by the conversion of light chain (LC)3-I to LC3-II and green fluorescent protein puncta formation. An intracranial mouse model and bioluminescent imaging were used to assess the effect of Mino on tumor growth and survival time of mice.ResultsThe expression of GRP78 in glioma was high, whereas in normal glia it was low. Mino treatment increased GRP78 expression and reduced binding of GRP78 with protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase. Subsequently, Mino increased eIF2α phosphorylation and CHOP expression. Knockdown of eIF2α or CHOP reduced Mino-induced LC3-II conversion and glioma cell death. When autophagy was inhibited, Mino induced cell death in a caspase-dependent manner. Rapamycin in combination with Mino produced synergistic effects on LC3 conversion, reduction of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway, and glioma cell death. Bioluminescent imaging showed that Mino inhibited the growth of glioma and prolonged survival time and that these effects were blocked by shCHOP.ConclusionsMino induced autophagy by eliciting endoplasmic reticulum stress response and switched cell death from autophagy to apoptosis when autophagy was blocked. These results coupled with clinical availability and a safe track record make Mino a promising agent for the treatment of malignant gliomas.",
author = "Liu, {Wei Ting} and Chih-Yuan Huang and Lu, {I. Chen} and Po-Wu Gean",
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Inhibition of glioma growth by minocycline is mediated through endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis and autophagic cell death. / Liu, Wei Ting; Huang, Chih-Yuan; Lu, I. Chen; Gean, Po-Wu.

In: Neuro-Oncology, Vol. 15, No. 9, 01.09.2013, p. 1127-1141.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Inhibition of glioma growth by minocycline is mediated through endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis and autophagic cell death

AU - Liu, Wei Ting

AU - Huang, Chih-Yuan

AU - Lu, I. Chen

AU - Gean, Po-Wu

PY - 2013/9/1

Y1 - 2013/9/1

N2 - BackgroundWe have reported that minocycline (Mino) induced autophagic death in glioma cells. In the present study, we characterize the upstream regulators that control autophagy and switch cell death from autophagic to apoptotic.MethodsWestern blotting and immunofluorescence were used to detect the expressions of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), transcription factor GADD153 (CHOP), and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). Short hairpin (sh)RNA was used to knock down eIF2α or CHOP expression. Autophagy was assessed by the conversion of light chain (LC)3-I to LC3-II and green fluorescent protein puncta formation. An intracranial mouse model and bioluminescent imaging were used to assess the effect of Mino on tumor growth and survival time of mice.ResultsThe expression of GRP78 in glioma was high, whereas in normal glia it was low. Mino treatment increased GRP78 expression and reduced binding of GRP78 with protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase. Subsequently, Mino increased eIF2α phosphorylation and CHOP expression. Knockdown of eIF2α or CHOP reduced Mino-induced LC3-II conversion and glioma cell death. When autophagy was inhibited, Mino induced cell death in a caspase-dependent manner. Rapamycin in combination with Mino produced synergistic effects on LC3 conversion, reduction of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway, and glioma cell death. Bioluminescent imaging showed that Mino inhibited the growth of glioma and prolonged survival time and that these effects were blocked by shCHOP.ConclusionsMino induced autophagy by eliciting endoplasmic reticulum stress response and switched cell death from autophagy to apoptosis when autophagy was blocked. These results coupled with clinical availability and a safe track record make Mino a promising agent for the treatment of malignant gliomas.

AB - BackgroundWe have reported that minocycline (Mino) induced autophagic death in glioma cells. In the present study, we characterize the upstream regulators that control autophagy and switch cell death from autophagic to apoptotic.MethodsWestern blotting and immunofluorescence were used to detect the expressions of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), transcription factor GADD153 (CHOP), and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). Short hairpin (sh)RNA was used to knock down eIF2α or CHOP expression. Autophagy was assessed by the conversion of light chain (LC)3-I to LC3-II and green fluorescent protein puncta formation. An intracranial mouse model and bioluminescent imaging were used to assess the effect of Mino on tumor growth and survival time of mice.ResultsThe expression of GRP78 in glioma was high, whereas in normal glia it was low. Mino treatment increased GRP78 expression and reduced binding of GRP78 with protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase. Subsequently, Mino increased eIF2α phosphorylation and CHOP expression. Knockdown of eIF2α or CHOP reduced Mino-induced LC3-II conversion and glioma cell death. When autophagy was inhibited, Mino induced cell death in a caspase-dependent manner. Rapamycin in combination with Mino produced synergistic effects on LC3 conversion, reduction of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway, and glioma cell death. Bioluminescent imaging showed that Mino inhibited the growth of glioma and prolonged survival time and that these effects were blocked by shCHOP.ConclusionsMino induced autophagy by eliciting endoplasmic reticulum stress response and switched cell death from autophagy to apoptosis when autophagy was blocked. These results coupled with clinical availability and a safe track record make Mino a promising agent for the treatment of malignant gliomas.

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U2 - 10.1093/neuonc/not073

DO - 10.1093/neuonc/not073

M3 - Article

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SP - 1127

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JO - Neuro-Oncology

JF - Neuro-Oncology

SN - 1522-8517

IS - 9

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