Yellow pigment monascin (MS) is a secondary metabolite isolated from Monascus-fermented products and has numerous physiological activities. However, the potential use of MS for immunomodulation remains unclear. We showed that MS and the synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ ligand rosiglitazone (RG) significantly inhibited the production of Th2 cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, in PMA/ionomycin-activated mouse EL-4 T cells. Moreover, we showed that this was due to cellular PPAR-γ translocation. These results indicate that MS and RG promote PPAR-γ-DNA interactions and suggest that the regulatory effects of MS and RG on Th2 cytokine production could be abolished with PPAR-γ antagonist treatment. MS and RG also suppressed Th2 transcription factor translocation (e.g., GATA-3 and nuclear factor of activated T cells) by preventing the phosphorylation of protein kinase C and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)