Gene expression in Haloarcula hispanica cells infected with the gammapleolipovirus His2 was studied using a custom DNA microarray. Total RNA from cells sampled at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4.5 hr postinfection was reverse-transcribed into labeled cDNA and hybridized to microarrays, revealing temporal and differential expression in both host and viral genes. His2 gene expression occurred in three main phases (early, middle, and late), and by 4.5 hr p.i. the majority of genes were actively transcribed, including those encoding the major structural proteins. Eighty host genes were differentially regulated ≥twofold postinfection, with most of them predicted to be involved in transport, translation, and metabolism. Differentially expressed host genes could also be grouped into early-, middle-, and late-expressed genes based on the timing of their up- and downregulation postinfection. The altered host transcriptional pattern suggests regulation by His2 infection, which may reprogram host metabolism to facilitate its own DNA replication and propagation. This study enhances the characterization of many hypothetical viral genes and provides insights into the interaction between His2 and its host.
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