Both collimated titanium (CO-Ti) and ion metal plasma titanium (IMP-Ti) have been widely used for plug liner layers. The focused ion beam (FIB) images of these films show that the IMP-Ti surface is granular and the CO-Ti surface is amorphous. It is concluded that the lower reflectivity and resistivity of IMP-Ti films are caused by the fact that IMP-Ti has a larger grain than that of the CO-Ti films. We define a grain size factor (GF) and find that the activation energy of grain growth of IMP-Ti film is 3.8 times larger than that of CO-Ti film. The electric measurement of vias resistance shows that IMP-Ti plug liner gives 13.6% higher via resistance and broader distribution than that of the CO-Ti plug liner. From the experimental data, we can conclude that there are three factors that make the IMP Ti plug liner process have higher vias resistance. These three factors are IMP-Ti resistivity, IMP-Ti thickness and CVD TiN thickness.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Metals and Alloys
- Materials Chemistry