The vibration generated by spindle defects, aging and abnormal operation is one of the main reasons causing the lack of precision to machine tools. To solve this problem, manufacturers began to adopt the industrial vibration sensor and data acquisition systems for preventive vibration monitoring, which expected to find abnormal vibration problems early before affecting the quality of processing in order to improve overall processing yield. However, the cost for the available sensors with data acquisition systems is quite expensive and some specifications cannot meet the requirements. Therefore, it is hard to implement or embed into machine tools due to the lower cost requirements and high-performance expectations in industrial applications. In order to develop a data acquisition system that satisfies the needs of machine tool manufacturers, the STMicroelectronics Coretex-M4 chip STM32F429 is adopted as the control core in this study to construct a "low-cost, high-efficiency, intelligent data acquisition system." Moreover, a vibration sensor is combined with the proposed data acquisition system to detect the vibration signal of the machine tool. The measured time-domain vibration data is transmitted to a local computer for fast Fourier transform (FFT) by using the virtual com port. Then, the timedomain and the results of the frequency-domain analysis of the vibration signals are displayed on the designed user interface (UI) at the same time for the user monitoring the current processing status of the machine tool clearly. From the experimental results, the proposed intelligent data acquisition system has both low-cost and high-efficiency features, which provides a high-value total solution for the manufacturers.