The adsorption of ciprofloxacin (CIP) as well as probe compounds, phenylpiperazine (PP) (NH) and fluorochloroquinolone carboxylic acid (FCQCA) (COOH), on palygorskite (PFl-1) obeyed the Langmuir isotherm at pH 2, 7, and 11 except the FCQCA adsorption at pH 2. The CIP and PP adsorption onto PFl-1 was 98-160 mmol/kg. In neutral solution the total amount of exchangeable cations desorbed correlated with the adsorbed amount of CIP and PP well with a slope of 0.9-1, indicating a cation-exchange mechanism. A low amount of FCQCA adsorption of 27-57 mmol/kg was observed and the amount of exchangeable cations desorbed negatively correlate with the amount of FCQCA adsorbed as influenced by surface complexation or cation bridging. FTIR band shifting due to the ring-stretch vibration of PP and the keto-carbonyl group stretching of FCQCA suggested strong interactions as PP and FCQCA absorbed on PFl-1 in neutral solution. In the interaction of CIP with PFl-1, the piperazine-amine group played an important role in cation-exchange interaction in acidic to neutral solution, while the deprotonated keto carbonyl group actively partook in cation bridging or surface complexation with metal cations adsorbed on PFl-1 when the CIP was in anionic form in alkaline solution.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis