Interface reliability assessments for copper/low-k products

Cheryl D. Hartfield, Ennis T. Ogawa, Young Joon Park, Tz Cheng Chiu, Honglin Guo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


Multiple new materials are being adopted by the semiconductor industry at a rapid rate for both semiconductor devices and packages. These advances are driving significant investigation into the impact of these materials on device and package reliability. Active investigation is focused on the impact of back-end-of-line (BEOL) processing on Cu/low-k reliability. This paper discusses Cu/low-k BEOL interfacial reliability issues and relates key items from the assembly process and packaging viewpoint that should be managed in order to prevent adverse assembly impact on BEOL interfacial reliability. Reliability failure mechanisms discussed include interface diffusion-controlled events such as the well-known example of Cu electromigration (EM), as well as stress-migration voiding. Interface defectivity impact on dielectric breakdown and leakage is discussed. Lastly, assessments of assembly impact on these Cu/low-k interfacial concerns are highlighted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)129-141
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Jun 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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