Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a growing threat to public health, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. EV-A71 infection is most prevalent in infants and children and causes a wide spectrum of clinical complications, including hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), pulmonary and neurological disorders. The pathogenesis of EV-A71 infection is poorly understood at present. It is likely that viral factors and host immunity, and their interplay, affect the pathogenesis and outcome of EV-A71 infection. The mammalian innate immune system forms the first layer of defense against viral infections and triggers activation of adaptive immunity leading to full protection. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the interaction between EV-A71 and the innate immune system. We discuss the role of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), and inflammasomes, in the detection of EV-A71 infection and induction of antiviral immunity. As a counteraction, EV-A71 viral proteins target multiple innate immune pathways to facilitate viral replication in host cells. These novel insights at the virus-host interphase may support the future development of vaccines and therapeutics against EV-A71 infection.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Molecular Biology
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cell Biology
- Biochemistry, medical
- Pharmacology (medical)