Intrinsic time gravity, heat kernel regularization, and emergence of Einstein's theory

Eyo Eyo Ita, Chopin Soo, Hoi Lai Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Hamiltonian of intrinsic time gravity is elucidated. The theory describes Schrödinger evolution of our universe with respect to the fractional change of the total spatial volume. Gravitational interactions are introduced by extending Klauder's momentric variable with similarity transformations, and explicit spatial diffeomorphism invariance is enforced via similarity transformation with exponentials of spatial integrals. In analogy with Yang-Mills theory, a Cotton-York term is obtained from the Chern-Simons functional of the affine connection. The essential difference is the fundamental variable for geometrodynamics is the metric rather than a gauge connection; in the case of Yang-Mills, there is also no analog of the integral of the spatial Ricci scalar curvature. Heat kernel regularization is employed to isolate the divergences of coincidence limits; apart from an additional Cotton-York term, a prescription in which Einstein's Ricci scalar potential emerges naturally from the positive-definite self-adjoint Hamiltonian of the theory is demonstrated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number035007
JournalClassical and Quantum Gravity
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Feb 5

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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