This book presents a unique approach to studying mechanisms and machines with illustrations that were depicted confusedly in ancient Chinese books. The historical, cultural, and technical backgrounds of the mechanisms are explained, and various mechanisms described in ancient books are introduced. By utilizing the idea for the conceptual design of modern mechanisms, all feasible designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain members and joints that meet the technical standards of the subjects' time periods are synthesized systematically. Ancient Chinese crossbows (original crossbow and repeating crossbows), textile mechanisms (silk-reeling mechanism, spinning devices, and looms), and many other handiwork mechanisms are used as illustrated examples. Such an approach provides a logical tool for the reconstruction designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain structures. It also provides an innovative direction for researchers to further identify the original structures of mechanisms and machines with illustrations in ancient literatures. The book can be used as a textbook and/or supplement reading material for courses related to history of ancient (Chinese) machinery and creative mechanism design for senior and graduate students.