In recent years, Taiwan’s mobile learning program, developed by the Ministry of Education, has expanded substantially from five pilot schools in 2009 to 95 schools in 2014. This study investigates the role of underlying factors affecting elementary student learning outcomes and provides practical implications for schools joining the mobile learning program in the future. Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted for multilevel analysis of big data collected from schools participating in the mobile learning program. Two main direct effects and interaction effects from the student and class level were analyzed in terms of the dependent variable, students’ perceived learning outcomes. This study used cluster sampling to randomly select 57 schools participating in the mobile learning program, with data collected from 44 teachers and 1,877 students. The results show that (1) Higher students’ task-value, self-efficacy and perceived family support were associated with higher perceived learning outcomes; (2) Lower class size was associated with higher perceived learning outcomes; and (3) Lower teacher beliefs regarding students’ ability to use information and communications technology (ICT) enhanced higher strength of positive relation between task-value and perceived learning outcomes, while higher teacher beliefs related to students’ learning efficacy and ability to use ICT enhanced higher strength of positive relation between self-efficacy and perceived learning outcomes.
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