Purpose: The prognosis of patients undergoing 2-sided radical nephroureterectomies (RNUs) with a residual bladder due to bilateral upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is poorly understood. This study was aimed toward surveying the oncology outcomes and prognostic factors that may help in shared decision-making related to bladder preservation in patients preparing to receive 2-sided RNUs. Methods: Patients with synchronous or metachronous bilateral UTUC who received bilateral RNUs with a residual bladder in our hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical and pathological data were analyzed for potential variables affecting the oncology outcomes. Results: A total of 50 patients were included. The average age at completion of the 2-sided RNU was 62.7 ± 12.4 years, with a mean follow-up of 88.4 ± 59.3 months after the 2-sided RNUs. The medium overall survival was 13.4 ± 1.8 years. Twenty-six patients (52%) had cancer recurrence in the residual bladder, but only 2 (8%) of the recurrences were muscle invasive. The highest UTUC stage was the only predictive factor for cancer-specific survival (CSS) rather than intravesical recurrence. The 5 year CSS rates in patients with the highest UTUC stage ≦ pT2 and ≧ pT3 were 90% and 51%, respectively (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Risk of cancer recurrence in the residual bladder is high, but does not affect survival outcomes. The highest UTUC stage plays a significant role in cancer-specific survival. With a careful patient surveillance, bladder preservation may be reasonable in patients with bilateral UTUC preparing for 2-sided RNUs.
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