In recent years, torrefaction, a mild pyrolysis process carried out at the temperature range of 200-300 °C, has been considered as an effective route for improving the properties of biomass. Hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin and xylan are the basic constituents in biomass and their thermal behavior is highly related to biomass degradation in a high-temperature environment. In order to provide a useful insight into biomass torrefaction, this study develops the isothermal kinetics to predict the thermal decompositions of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin and xylan. A thermogravimetry is used to perform torrefaction and five torrefaction temperatures of 200, 225, 250, 275 and 300 °C with 1 h heating duration are taken into account. From the analyses, the recommended values of the order of reaction of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin and xylan are 3, 1, 1 and 9, respectively, whereas their activation energies are 187.06, 124.42, 37.58 and 67.83 kJ mol-1, respectively. A comparison between the predictions and the experiments suggests that the developed model can provide a good evaluation on the thermal degradations of the constituents, expect for cellulose at 300 °C and hemicellulose at 275 °C. Eventually, co-torrefaction of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin based on the model is predicted and compared to the thermogravimetric analysis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Civil and Structural Engineering
- Building and Construction
- Mechanical Engineering
- Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering