Kinematic property of target motion conditions gaze behavior and eye-hand synergy during manual tracking

Chien Ting Huang, Ing Shiou Hwang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigated how frequency demand and motion feedback influenced composite ocular movements and eye-hand synergy during manual tracking. Fourteen volunteers conducted slow and fast force-tracking in which targets were displayed in either line-mode or wave-mode to guide manual tracking with target movement of direct position or velocity nature. The results showed that eye-hand synergy was a selective response of spatiotemporal coupling conditional on target rate and feedback mode. Slow and line-mode tracking exhibited stronger eye-hand coupling than fast and wave-mode tracking. Both eye movement and manual action led the target signal during fast-tracking, while the latency of ocular navigation during slow-tracking depended on the feedback mode. Slow-tracking resulted in more saccadic responses and larger pursuit gains than fast-tracking. Line-mode tracking led to larger pursuit gains but fewer and shorter gaze fixations than wave-mode tracking. During slow-tracking, incidences of saccade and gaze fixation fluctuated across a target cycle, peaking at velocity maximum and the maximal curvature of target displacement, respectively. For line-mode tracking, the incidence of smooth pursuit was phase-dependent, peaking at velocity maximum as well. Manual behavior of slow or line-mode tracking was better predicted by composite eye movements than that of fast or wave-mode tracking. In conclusion, manual tracking relied on versatile visual strategies to perceive target movements of different kinematic properties, which suggested a flexible coordinative control for the ocular and manual sensorimotor systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1253-1269
Number of pages17
JournalHuman Movement Science
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Dec

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology


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