A Pseudomonas luteola strain expressing azoreductase activity was utilized to remove the color of an azo dye (reactive red 22) from contaminated solutions. The effects of substrate concentrations, medium compositions, and operation parameters (e.g., pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, etc.) on decolorization of the azo dye by a P. luteola strain were systematically investigated to reveal the key factors that dominate the performance of azo-dye decolorization. The metabolites resulting from bacterial decolorization were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometery (MS). The results show that the dissolved oxygen and glucose concentration retarded decolorization of reactive red 22 by P. luteola. The optimal azo-dye decolorization occurred at 37°C, while more rapid decolorization took place over pH 7-9. Yeast extract and tryptone strongly enhanced the decolorization. The Michaelis-Menten model can satisfactorily describe the dependence of specific decolorization rate on the concentration of substrate (reactive red 22 or yeast extract). Decolorization of the azo dye by intact cells of P. luteola was essentially independent of the growth phase, whereas the azoreductase activity of the cell-free extract decreased in the order of late-stationary phase > early-stationary phase > mid-log phase. This suggests that mass transfer of the azo dye across the cell membrane may be the rate-limiting step. The HPLC and MS analyses suggest that both partial reduction and complete cleavage of the azo bond could contribute to decolorization of reactive red 22 by P. luteola.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecological Modelling
- Water Science and Technology
- Waste Management and Disposal