Kirkendall void formation in eutectic SnPb solder joints on bare Cu and its effect on joint reliability

Kejun Zeng, Roger Stierman, Tz-Cheng Chiu, Darvin Edwards, Kazuaki Ano, K. N. Tu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

386 Citations (Scopus)


The electronic packaging industry has been using electroless Ni (P) immersion Au as bonding pads for solder joints. Because of the persistence of the black pad defect, which is due to cracks in the pad surface, the industry is looking for a replacement of the Ni (P) plating. Several Cu -based candidates have been suggested, but most of them will lead to the direct contact of solder with Cu in soldering. The fast reaction of solder with Cu, especially during solid state aging, may be a concern for the solder joint reliability if the package will be used in a high temperature environment and is highly stressed. In this work, the reaction of eutectic SnPb solder with electrodeposited laminate Cu is studied. Emphasis is given to the evolution of the microstructure in the interfacial region during solid state aging and its effect on solder joint reliability. A large number of Kirkendall voids were observed at the interface between Cu3 Sn and Cu. The void formation resulted in weak bonding between solder and Cu and led to brittle fracture at the interface in the ball shear and pull tests. The experimental results indicate that a barrier for Cu diffusion may be needed between the solder and the type of Cu used in the test vehicle for the packages that will experience high temperature (>100°C) and high stress.

Original languageEnglish
Article number024508
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Jan 15

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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