Laser entrance window transmission and reflection measurements for preheating in magnetized liner inertial fusion

J. R. Davies, R. E. Bahr, D. H. Barnak, R. Betti, M. J. Bonino, E. M. Campbell, E. C. Hansen, D. R. Harding, J. L. Peebles, A. B. Sefkow, W. Seka, Po-Yu Chang, M. Geissel, A. J. Harvey-Thompson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Laser-driven magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) is being developed on the OMEGA Laser System to study scaling. MagLIF targets require a preheat laser entrance window that can hold the gas in the target yet allow sufficient laser energy to enter the gas. For OMEGA MagLIF targets, 1.8-μm-thick polyimide foils were found to be sufficient to hold a fuel pressure of up to 14 atm. Transmission and reflection of an OMEGA beam incident on such foils were measured with a calorimeter and time-resolved spectrometers for 2.5-ns square-shaped pulses, with energies from 60 to 200 J, focused to intensities from 0.65 to 2.2 × 1014 W/cm2. The laser energy transmitted in every case exceeded that required to achieve the goal of preheating the gas to 100 eV. The time-resolved measurements showed an initial period with very low, decreasing transmission, the duration of which decreased with increasing intensity, followed by a rapid transition to full transmission, accompanied by brief sidescattering of the transmitted light with a significant red shift. Reflection was always negligible. Two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, using 3-D ray tracing with inverse bremsstrahlung energy deposition, did not capture the rapid transition to full transmission, showing instead a slow increase in transmission, without significant sidescatter or red shift. We propose that full transmission is achieved by self-focusing followed by ponderomotive blowout of the plasma.

Original languageEnglish
Article number062704
JournalPhysics of Plasmas
Volume25
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jun 1

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linings
entrances
heating
lasers
red shift
foils
gases
energy
self focusing
polyimides
ray tracing
bremsstrahlung
calorimeters
hydrodynamics
time measurement
spectrometers
scaling
shift
radiation
pulses

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

Davies, J. R., Bahr, R. E., Barnak, D. H., Betti, R., Bonino, M. J., Campbell, E. M., ... Harvey-Thompson, A. J. (2018). Laser entrance window transmission and reflection measurements for preheating in magnetized liner inertial fusion. Physics of Plasmas, 25(6), [062704]. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5030107
Davies, J. R. ; Bahr, R. E. ; Barnak, D. H. ; Betti, R. ; Bonino, M. J. ; Campbell, E. M. ; Hansen, E. C. ; Harding, D. R. ; Peebles, J. L. ; Sefkow, A. B. ; Seka, W. ; Chang, Po-Yu ; Geissel, M. ; Harvey-Thompson, A. J. / Laser entrance window transmission and reflection measurements for preheating in magnetized liner inertial fusion. In: Physics of Plasmas. 2018 ; Vol. 25, No. 6.
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abstract = "Laser-driven magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) is being developed on the OMEGA Laser System to study scaling. MagLIF targets require a preheat laser entrance window that can hold the gas in the target yet allow sufficient laser energy to enter the gas. For OMEGA MagLIF targets, 1.8-μm-thick polyimide foils were found to be sufficient to hold a fuel pressure of up to 14 atm. Transmission and reflection of an OMEGA beam incident on such foils were measured with a calorimeter and time-resolved spectrometers for 2.5-ns square-shaped pulses, with energies from 60 to 200 J, focused to intensities from 0.65 to 2.2 × 1014 W/cm2. The laser energy transmitted in every case exceeded that required to achieve the goal of preheating the gas to 100 eV. The time-resolved measurements showed an initial period with very low, decreasing transmission, the duration of which decreased with increasing intensity, followed by a rapid transition to full transmission, accompanied by brief sidescattering of the transmitted light with a significant red shift. Reflection was always negligible. Two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, using 3-D ray tracing with inverse bremsstrahlung energy deposition, did not capture the rapid transition to full transmission, showing instead a slow increase in transmission, without significant sidescatter or red shift. We propose that full transmission is achieved by self-focusing followed by ponderomotive blowout of the plasma.",
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Davies, JR, Bahr, RE, Barnak, DH, Betti, R, Bonino, MJ, Campbell, EM, Hansen, EC, Harding, DR, Peebles, JL, Sefkow, AB, Seka, W, Chang, P-Y, Geissel, M & Harvey-Thompson, AJ 2018, 'Laser entrance window transmission and reflection measurements for preheating in magnetized liner inertial fusion', Physics of Plasmas, vol. 25, no. 6, 062704. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5030107

Laser entrance window transmission and reflection measurements for preheating in magnetized liner inertial fusion. / Davies, J. R.; Bahr, R. E.; Barnak, D. H.; Betti, R.; Bonino, M. J.; Campbell, E. M.; Hansen, E. C.; Harding, D. R.; Peebles, J. L.; Sefkow, A. B.; Seka, W.; Chang, Po-Yu; Geissel, M.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.

In: Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 25, No. 6, 062704, 01.06.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Laser entrance window transmission and reflection measurements for preheating in magnetized liner inertial fusion

AU - Davies, J. R.

AU - Bahr, R. E.

AU - Barnak, D. H.

AU - Betti, R.

AU - Bonino, M. J.

AU - Campbell, E. M.

AU - Hansen, E. C.

AU - Harding, D. R.

AU - Peebles, J. L.

AU - Sefkow, A. B.

AU - Seka, W.

AU - Chang, Po-Yu

AU - Geissel, M.

AU - Harvey-Thompson, A. J.

PY - 2018/6/1

Y1 - 2018/6/1

N2 - Laser-driven magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) is being developed on the OMEGA Laser System to study scaling. MagLIF targets require a preheat laser entrance window that can hold the gas in the target yet allow sufficient laser energy to enter the gas. For OMEGA MagLIF targets, 1.8-μm-thick polyimide foils were found to be sufficient to hold a fuel pressure of up to 14 atm. Transmission and reflection of an OMEGA beam incident on such foils were measured with a calorimeter and time-resolved spectrometers for 2.5-ns square-shaped pulses, with energies from 60 to 200 J, focused to intensities from 0.65 to 2.2 × 1014 W/cm2. The laser energy transmitted in every case exceeded that required to achieve the goal of preheating the gas to 100 eV. The time-resolved measurements showed an initial period with very low, decreasing transmission, the duration of which decreased with increasing intensity, followed by a rapid transition to full transmission, accompanied by brief sidescattering of the transmitted light with a significant red shift. Reflection was always negligible. Two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, using 3-D ray tracing with inverse bremsstrahlung energy deposition, did not capture the rapid transition to full transmission, showing instead a slow increase in transmission, without significant sidescatter or red shift. We propose that full transmission is achieved by self-focusing followed by ponderomotive blowout of the plasma.

AB - Laser-driven magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) is being developed on the OMEGA Laser System to study scaling. MagLIF targets require a preheat laser entrance window that can hold the gas in the target yet allow sufficient laser energy to enter the gas. For OMEGA MagLIF targets, 1.8-μm-thick polyimide foils were found to be sufficient to hold a fuel pressure of up to 14 atm. Transmission and reflection of an OMEGA beam incident on such foils were measured with a calorimeter and time-resolved spectrometers for 2.5-ns square-shaped pulses, with energies from 60 to 200 J, focused to intensities from 0.65 to 2.2 × 1014 W/cm2. The laser energy transmitted in every case exceeded that required to achieve the goal of preheating the gas to 100 eV. The time-resolved measurements showed an initial period with very low, decreasing transmission, the duration of which decreased with increasing intensity, followed by a rapid transition to full transmission, accompanied by brief sidescattering of the transmitted light with a significant red shift. Reflection was always negligible. Two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, using 3-D ray tracing with inverse bremsstrahlung energy deposition, did not capture the rapid transition to full transmission, showing instead a slow increase in transmission, without significant sidescatter or red shift. We propose that full transmission is achieved by self-focusing followed by ponderomotive blowout of the plasma.

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