Learning induces sonic hedgehog signaling in the amygdala which promotes neurogenesis and long-term memory formation

Hui Chi Hung, Ya-Hsin Hsiao, Po-Wu Gean

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7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: It is known that neurogenesis occurs throughout the life mostly in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle. We investigated whether neurogenesis occurred in the amygdala and its function in fear memory formation. Methods: For detection of newborn neurons, mice were injected intraperitoneally with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) 2 h before receiving 15 tone-footshock pairings, and newborn neurons were analyzed 14 and 42 days after training. To determine the relationship between neurogenesis and memory formation, mice were given a proliferation inhibitor methylazoxymethanol (MAM) or a DNA synthesis inhibitor cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C). To test whether sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling was required for neurogenesis, Shh-small hairpin-interfering RNA (shRNA) was inserted into a retroviral vector (Retro-Shh-shRNA). Results: The number of BrdU+/Neuronal nuclei (NeuN)+ cells was significantly higher in the conditioned mice, suggesting that association of tone with footshock induced neurogenesis. MAM and Ara-C markedly reduced neurogenesis and impaired fear memory formation. Shh, its receptor patched 1 (Ptc1), and transcription factor Gli1 protein levels increased at 1 day and returned to baseline at 7 days after fear conditioning. Retro-Shh-shRNA, which knocked down Shh specifically in the mitotic neurons, reduced the number of BrdU+/NeuN+ cells and decreased freezing responses. Conclusions: These results suggest that fear learning induces Shh signaling activation in the amygdala, which promotes neurogenesis and fear memory formation.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Volume18
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jan 1

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Hedgehogs
Long-Term Memory
Neurogenesis
Amygdala
Small Interfering RNA
Learning
Fear
Cytarabine
Bromodeoxyuridine
Lateral Ventricles
Cell Nucleus
Neurons
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Freezing
Hippocampus
Transcription Factors

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

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title = "Learning induces sonic hedgehog signaling in the amygdala which promotes neurogenesis and long-term memory formation",
abstract = "Background: It is known that neurogenesis occurs throughout the life mostly in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle. We investigated whether neurogenesis occurred in the amygdala and its function in fear memory formation. Methods: For detection of newborn neurons, mice were injected intraperitoneally with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) 2 h before receiving 15 tone-footshock pairings, and newborn neurons were analyzed 14 and 42 days after training. To determine the relationship between neurogenesis and memory formation, mice were given a proliferation inhibitor methylazoxymethanol (MAM) or a DNA synthesis inhibitor cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C). To test whether sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling was required for neurogenesis, Shh-small hairpin-interfering RNA (shRNA) was inserted into a retroviral vector (Retro-Shh-shRNA). Results: The number of BrdU+/Neuronal nuclei (NeuN)+ cells was significantly higher in the conditioned mice, suggesting that association of tone with footshock induced neurogenesis. MAM and Ara-C markedly reduced neurogenesis and impaired fear memory formation. Shh, its receptor patched 1 (Ptc1), and transcription factor Gli1 protein levels increased at 1 day and returned to baseline at 7 days after fear conditioning. Retro-Shh-shRNA, which knocked down Shh specifically in the mitotic neurons, reduced the number of BrdU+/NeuN+ cells and decreased freezing responses. Conclusions: These results suggest that fear learning induces Shh signaling activation in the amygdala, which promotes neurogenesis and fear memory formation.",
author = "Hung, {Hui Chi} and Ya-Hsin Hsiao and Po-Wu Gean",
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AU - Hsiao, Ya-Hsin

AU - Gean, Po-Wu

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N2 - Background: It is known that neurogenesis occurs throughout the life mostly in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle. We investigated whether neurogenesis occurred in the amygdala and its function in fear memory formation. Methods: For detection of newborn neurons, mice were injected intraperitoneally with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) 2 h before receiving 15 tone-footshock pairings, and newborn neurons were analyzed 14 and 42 days after training. To determine the relationship between neurogenesis and memory formation, mice were given a proliferation inhibitor methylazoxymethanol (MAM) or a DNA synthesis inhibitor cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C). To test whether sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling was required for neurogenesis, Shh-small hairpin-interfering RNA (shRNA) was inserted into a retroviral vector (Retro-Shh-shRNA). Results: The number of BrdU+/Neuronal nuclei (NeuN)+ cells was significantly higher in the conditioned mice, suggesting that association of tone with footshock induced neurogenesis. MAM and Ara-C markedly reduced neurogenesis and impaired fear memory formation. Shh, its receptor patched 1 (Ptc1), and transcription factor Gli1 protein levels increased at 1 day and returned to baseline at 7 days after fear conditioning. Retro-Shh-shRNA, which knocked down Shh specifically in the mitotic neurons, reduced the number of BrdU+/NeuN+ cells and decreased freezing responses. Conclusions: These results suggest that fear learning induces Shh signaling activation in the amygdala, which promotes neurogenesis and fear memory formation.

AB - Background: It is known that neurogenesis occurs throughout the life mostly in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle. We investigated whether neurogenesis occurred in the amygdala and its function in fear memory formation. Methods: For detection of newborn neurons, mice were injected intraperitoneally with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) 2 h before receiving 15 tone-footshock pairings, and newborn neurons were analyzed 14 and 42 days after training. To determine the relationship between neurogenesis and memory formation, mice were given a proliferation inhibitor methylazoxymethanol (MAM) or a DNA synthesis inhibitor cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C). To test whether sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling was required for neurogenesis, Shh-small hairpin-interfering RNA (shRNA) was inserted into a retroviral vector (Retro-Shh-shRNA). Results: The number of BrdU+/Neuronal nuclei (NeuN)+ cells was significantly higher in the conditioned mice, suggesting that association of tone with footshock induced neurogenesis. MAM and Ara-C markedly reduced neurogenesis and impaired fear memory formation. Shh, its receptor patched 1 (Ptc1), and transcription factor Gli1 protein levels increased at 1 day and returned to baseline at 7 days after fear conditioning. Retro-Shh-shRNA, which knocked down Shh specifically in the mitotic neurons, reduced the number of BrdU+/NeuN+ cells and decreased freezing responses. Conclusions: These results suggest that fear learning induces Shh signaling activation in the amygdala, which promotes neurogenesis and fear memory formation.

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